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Evolutionary Innovation

By Team MeaningKosh

CRISPR-Cas9 is an evolutionary innovation that has revolutionized how scientists modify and edit genes. It is a bacterial defense system that has been repurposed as a gene editing tool, enabling targeted changes to the genetic code of living organisms.

Table Of Content:

1. Megaevolutionary dynamics and the timing of evolutionary ...

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-17190-9
Megaevolutionary dynamics and the timing of evolutionary ...Jul 3, 2020 ... Overall, these results support long-established predictions that major phenotypic innovations are marked by fast evolutionary rates, ...

2. Rapid evolutionary innovation during an Archaean genetic expansion

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21170026/
Rapid evolutionary innovation during an Archaean genetic expansionRapid evolutionary innovation during an Archaean genetic expansion. Nature. 2011 Jan 6;469(7328):93-6. doi: 10.1038/nature09649. Epub 2010 Dec 19.

4. Enzyme promiscuity: engine of evolutionary innovation

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25210039/
Enzyme promiscuity: engine of evolutionary innovationEnzyme promiscuity: engine of evolutionary innovation. J Biol Chem. 2014 Oct 31;289(44):30229-30236. doi: 10.1074/jbc.R114.572990. Epub 2014 Sep 10.

6. Genes | Free Full-Text | Centromeres under Pressure: Evolutionary ...

https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4425/11/8/912
Centromeres under Pressure: Evolutionary Innovation in Conflict with Conserved Function · Dipartimento di Biologia e Biotecnologie “Charles Darwin”, Sapienza ...

9. Evolutionary innovation and ecology in marine tetrapods from the ...

https://science.sciencemag.org/content/348/6232/aaa3716
Evolutionary innovation and ecology in marine tetrapods from the ...Apr 17, 2015 ... Kelley and Pyenson review the literature on marine vertebrate groups over time and describe the innovations that facilitated the evolution of ...

What is CRISPR-Cas9?

CRISPR-Cas9 is a bacterial defense system that has been repurposed as a gene editing tool, enabling targeted changes to the genetic code of living organisms.

How does it work?

CRISPR-Cas9 works by using two components; Cas9 (an enzyme) and a guide RNA molecule. The guide RNA molecule binds to a specific sequence of DNA, allowing the Cas9 enzyme to make cuts within the DNA at this target region. This enables scientists to add, remove or change sections of genetic material in order for researchers to study its effects on the organism in question.

What are its applications?

CRISPR-Cas9 can be used to treat human diseases caused by genetic mutations such as cancer, HIV and cystic fibrosis, as well as for agricultural purposes such as increasing crop yields or developing crops with desired traits such as drought resistance.

What are the benefits of using CRISPR-Cas9?

Compared with other gene editing techniques, CRISPR-Cas9 offers three main advantages; precision, speed and efficiency. With this technology, scientists can make precise edits quickly and cost effectively compared with previous methods of gene editing which require more time or resources. In addition, it can be used on almost any type of organism making it widely applicable across many disciplines.

Are there any potential risks associated with CRISPR-Cas9?

As with any new technology there are potential risks associated with its use including off target effects where unintended mutations occur at a different site than the intended target site; and the risk that some unintended side effects may arise from modifying an organism's genome which could have implications for human health and safety etc. As such it is important that all research conducted using this technology follows stringent ethical guidelines set out by regulatory bodies or scientific organizations.

Conclusion:
CRISPR-Cas9 provides unprecedented opportunities for scientists and researchers alike in diverse fields ranging from medicine to agriculture providing significantly improved accuracy over previous gene editing methods whilst being faster and more cost effective too. Although there are potential risks associated with its use, if used responsibly and ethically then there is huge potential for unlocking further advances in our understanding and treatment of many conditions and diseases around the world.

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